JANUARY 09, 2016

| by Robin Thompson, Stephanie M. Matheson, Thomas Plötz, Sandra A. Edwards, Ilias Kyriazakis

Porcine lie detectors: Automatic quantification of posture state and transitions in sows using inertial sensors

Highlights

• Data from a body-mounted accelerometer were used to classify posture and detect posture transitions in farrowing sows.

• Comparative descriptors of lying behaviour can be extracted allowing further in-depth analysis.

• The method may be used to predict the onset of farrowing and movements patterns potentially dangerous to piglets.

Abstract

This paper presents a novel approach to automated classification and quantification of sow postures and posture transitions that may enable large scale and accurate continuous behaviour assessment on farm. Automatic classification and quantification of postures and posture transitions in domestic animals has substantial potential to enhance their welfare and ...

JANUARY 06, 2016

| by Beth Clark, Gavin B. Stewart, Luca A. Panzone, Ilias Kyriazakis, Lynn J. Frewer

A Systematic Review of Public Attitudes, Perceptions and Behaviours Towards Production Diseases Associated with Farm Animal Welfare

Abstract

Increased productivity may have negative impacts on farm animal welfare (FAW) in modern animal production systems. Efficiency gains in production are primarily thought to be due to the intensification of production, and this has been associated with an increased incidence of production diseases, which can negatively impact upon FAW. While there is a considerable body of research into consumer attitudes towards FAW, the extent to which this relates specifically to a reduction in production diseases in intensive systems, and whether the increased incidence of diseases represents a barrier to consumer acceptance of their increased use, requires further investigation. Therefore ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Kapell, D.N.R.G., Ashworth, C.J., Walling, G.A. et al.

Estimation of genetic associations between reproduction and production traits based on a sire and dam line with common ancestry.

Estimation of genetic associations between reproduction and production traits based on a sire and dam line with common ancestry. Animal 3: 1354-1362.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Fowler, K.E., Reitter, C.P., Walling, G.A. et al.

Novel approach for deriving genome wide SNP analysis data from archived blood spots

Novel approach for deriving genome wide SNP analysis data from archived blood spots. BMC research notes 5: 503.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by De Backer, P., Fockedey, M., Schillebeekx, J.

Influence of herd size, herd management and geographic pig density on PCV2 antibody titers of sows and 3 week old piglets in 10 Belgian farms.

Influence of herd size, herd management and geographic pig density on PCV2 antibody titers of sows and 3 week old piglets in 10 Belgian farms.

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Matulova, M., Rajova, J., Vlasatikova, L., Volf, J., Stepanova, H., Havlickova, H., Sisak, F., Rychlik, I.

Characterization of Chicken Spleen Transcriptome after Infection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis.

Abstract

In this study we were interested in identification of new markers of chicken response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection. To reach this aim, gene expression in the spleens of naive chickens and those intravenously infected with S. Enteritidis with or without previous oral vaccination was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of splenic mRNA/cDNA. Forty genes with increased expression at the level of transcription were identified. The most inducible genes encoded avidin (AVD), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (EXFABP), immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), chemokine ah221 (AH221), trappin-6-like protein (TRAP6) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Using cDNA from sorted splenic B-lymphocytes, macrophages, ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Sorensen, A., Muir, D.D., Knight, C.H.

Extended lactation in dairy cows: effects of milking frequency, calving season and nutrition on lactation persistency and milk quality

Abstract

Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Farmer, C., Knight, C.H. Flint, D.J.

Mammary gland involution and endocrine status in sows: Effects of weaning age and lactation heat stress.

Abstract

The effects of lactation length and/or heat stress on endocrine status of sows and indicators of mammary involution at weaning were studied. Twenty-eight first parity Yorkshire × Landrace sows were housed at 21 (CTL) or 29°C (HS) throughout lactation. Within each temperature group, half the sows were randomly assigned to a weaning age of 22 (W22: CTL, n = 7; HS, n = 8) or 44 d (W44: CTL, n = 6; HS, n = 7). Litter size was standardized to 10 or 11 on day 2 and to 9 on day 23 of lactation. Blood and milk samples ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Foster, N., Macpherson, G.G.

Murine Caecal patch M cells transport Scrapie-Associated Fibrils (SAF) in vivo.

Murine Caecal patch M cells transport Scrapie-Associated Fibrils (SAF) in vivo.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by J.M.Garraud , R. Cariolet , M. Brack , G. Simon

Pre-infection of pigs withMycoplasma hyopneumoniae induces oxidative stress that influencesoutcomes of a subsequent infection with a swineinfluenza virus of H1N1.

Abstract

The severity of swine influenza is highly variable and can be exacerbated by many factors, such as a pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp). The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress induced by Mhp and the impact of this stress on the evolution of an infection with the European avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus. Two experimental trials (E1 and E2), which differed only by the feed delivered to the animals, were conducted on SPF pigs. In each trial, one group of nine 6-week-old pigs was inoculated intra-tracheally with Mhp and H1N1 at 21 ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Jonsson, L., Svennersten-Sjaunja, K. and Knight, C.H.

Use of oxytocin to improve diagnosis of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Abstract

Mastitis, inflammation in the udder tissue, caused by S. aureus is a big problem in dairy cattle production. It causes suffering for the cow and curing or replacing the infected cow is costly for the farmer. It is known that beef cattle also suffer from mastitis caused by S. aureus. The aseptical methods commonly used to diagnose mastitis in most cases require several milk samples from the same udder quarter. A method where only one sample is necessary would be useful, especially in beef cattle production where handling and milking the animal is difficult. Research has shown that S. ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Pastorelli, H., Le Floc’h, N., Merlot, E., Meunier-Salaun, M.C., van Milgen, J., Montagne, L.,

Sanitary housing conditions modify the performance and behavioural response of weaned pigs to feed- and housing-related stressors

Sanitary housing conditions modify the performance and behavioural response of weaned pigs to feed- and housing-related stressors Animal, 6, 952-961.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Losada, B., Cachaldora, P., Mendez, J., et al.

The prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of oil seeds and oil by-products for poultry from its chemical components, in vitro analysis or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

The prediction of apparent metabolisable energy content of oil seeds and oil by-products for poultry from its chemical components, in vitro analysis or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.Volume 160 pag. 62-72.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Fajardo, P., Mendez, J., et al.

Effects of feeding of two potentially probiotic preparations from lactic acid bacteria on the performance and faecal microflora of broiler chickens

Effects of feeding of two potentially probiotic preparations from lactic acid bacteria on the performance and faecal microflora of broiler chickens. The Scientific World Journal. Volume 2012 Article ID 562635, 9 pages.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Serrano, M.P., Valencia, D.G., Mendez, J., Mateos, G.G.

Influence of feed form and source of soybean meal of the diet on growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. 1.

Influence of feed form and source of soybean meal of the diet on growth performance of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. 1. Floor pen study. Poultry Science. 91: 2838-2844.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Kapell, D.N.R.G., Neeteson, A.M., Avendaño, S. et al.

Genetic parameters of foot-pad dermatitis and body weight in purebred broiler lines in 2 contrasting environments.

Genetic parameters of foot-pad dermatitis and body weight in purebred broiler lines in 2 contrasting environments. Poult. Sci. 91:565– 574.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Van Dijk, H., Fischer, A. R., & Frewer, L. J.

Consumer Responses to Integrated Risk‐Benefit Information Associated with the Consumption of Food.

Consumer Responses to Integrated Risk‐Benefit Information Associated with the Consumption of Food.

Risk Analysis, 31(3), 429-439.

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Baxter, E.M., Edwards, S.A. et al.

Genetic and environmental effects on piglet survival and maternal behaviour of the farrowing sow.

Genetic and environmental effects on piglet survival and maternal behaviour of the farrowing sow. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 130: 28-41.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Aumüller, R., Neuteboom, M., et al.

Animal Health Data Comparison. Recommendations for the Future.

Animal Health Data Comparison. Recommendations for the Future. Report and Annexes. www.eadgene.org.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Merlot, E., Vincent, A., Thomas, F., Meunier-Salaün, M.C., Damon, M., Robert, F., Dourmad, J.-Y., Lebret, B., Prunier, A.

Health and immune traits of Basque and Large -White pigs housed in a conventional or enriched environment

Abstract

To quantify the combined effect of housing conditions and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and performance of pigs, a meta-analysis was performed using information from 45 experiments in 42 published manuscripts. Multiple regression models were applied to evaluate the effects of space allowance per pig (k-value; m2/BW0.667), group size (n), floor characteristics (solid, partly, or totally slatted floor), bedding (presence or absence), and the number and presentation sequence of point-source objects (no object, one object, two simultaneous objects, two alternated objects, three or more simultaneous objects or three or more alternated objects) on the general activity, enrichment and object-directed ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Foster, N., Elsheikha, H.

The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies. Parasitol Res. 110: 1587-1599.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Harvey, P.C., Watson, M., Hulme, S., Jones, M.A., Lovell, M., Berchieri, A.Jr, Young, J., Bumstead, N., Barrow, P.A.

Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Colonizing the Lumen of the Chicken Intestine Grows Slowly and Upregulates a Unique Set of Virulence and Metabolism Genes

Abstract

The pattern of global gene expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria harvested from the chicken intestinal lumen (cecum) was compared with that of a late-log-phase LB broth culture using a whole-genome microarray. Levels of transcription, translation, and cell division in vivo were lower than those in vitro. S. Typhimurium appeared to be using carbon sources, such as propionate, 1,2-propanediol, and ethanolamine, in addition to melibiose and ascorbate, the latter possibly transformed to d-xylulose. Amino acid starvation appeared to be a factor during colonization. Bacteria in the lumen were non- or weakly motile and nonchemotactic but showed upregulation of ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Stokholm, N.M., Permin, A., Bisgaard, M., Christensen, J.P.

Causes of Mortality in Commercial Organic Layers in Denmark.

Abstract

A longitudinal study investigated the courses of mortality in commercial free-range organic layer flocks in Denmark. In total, 15 organic egg-producing flocks from 11 farms were randomly selected among 80 farms registered in Denmark. Four farms with confined egg production on deep litter were included for comparison. Flock sizes ranged from 2260 to 5940 layers. The flocks were monitored from introduction to the layer farm until slaughter. Flock mortalities ranged from approximately 2% to 91%, with a mean of 20.8% for organic flocks compared with 7% for confined flocks on deep litter. In total, 4608 layers were submitted for ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Meyns, T., Vansteelant, J., Rolly, E., Dewulf, J., Haesebrouck, F., Maes, D.

A crosssectional study of risk factors associated with pulmonary lesions in pigs at slaughter.

Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify herd-level factors that may influence the prevalence and severity of macroscopically visible pulmonary lesions in pigs at slaughter. Data were collected following abattoir inspection of 50 randomly-selected batches of 6335 pigs and by interviewing the producers. Macroscopic lung lesions were identified and scored semi-quantitatively in ≥ 80 pigs/herd and the prevalence of pleuritis and pneumonia was 20.76% and 23.85%, respectively. Following multivariable analysis, the seroprevalence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (P < 0.001) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (P = 0.018) and the number of pigs/nursery pen (P = 0.023) were positively associated, whereas average weaning ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Crhanova, M., Hradecka, H., Faldynova, M., Matulova, M., Havlickova, H., Sisak, F., Rychlik, I.

Immune response of chicken gut to natural colonization by gut microflora and to Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection.

Abstract

In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Rosselin, M., Virlogeux-Payant, I., Roy, C., Bottreau, E., Sizaret, P., Mijouin, L., Germon, P., Caron, E., Velge, P., Wiedemann, A.

Rck of Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis, mediates a Zipper-like internalization.

Abstract

Salmonella can invade non-phagocytic cells through its type III secretion system (T3SS-1), which induces a Trigger entry process. This study showed that Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis can also invade cells via the Rck outer membrane protein. Rck was necessary and sufficient to enable non-invasive E. coli and Rck-coated beads to adhere to and invade different cells. Internalization analysis of latex beads coated with different Rck peptides showed that the peptide containing amino acids 140-150 promoted adhesion, whereas amino acids between 150 and 159 modulated invasion. Expression of dominant-negative derivatives and use of specific inhibitors demonstrated the crucial ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by L.Montagne, N. Le Floc'h, M. Arturo-Schaan, R. Foret, M.C. Urdaci andM. Le Gall

Comparative effect of level of dietary fiber and sanitary conditions on the growth and health of weaning piglets.

Abstract

There are conflicting results on the growth and health of weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) fed high-fiber diets, and responses may differ according to sanitary conditions. This study was conducted to explore the growth, health, and fecal microbiota of weanling pigs fed either low- or high-fiber diets in 2 different sanitary conditions. Forty-eight pigs weaned at 28 d of age were individually housed in "good" (clean) or "poor" (unclean) sanitary conditions. During 2 consecutive phases, pigs were fed 2 diets containing a low (control) or high level of fiber: 121 or 169 g/kg total dietary fiber (TDF) for Phase I ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Ganapathy, K., Wilkins, M., Forrester, A., Lemiere, S., Cserep, T., McMullin, P.F., Jones, R.C.

QX-like infectious bronchitis virus isolated from proventriculitis in commercial broilers in England.

Abstract

This short communication reports on the isolation of QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from the proventriculus of broiler chicken in England, and its pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks. This appears to be the first report of the isolation of this virus from the proventriculus of affected chicks in the UK. The virus was first recovered from this tissue in chickens in China in 1996 (YuDong and others 1998), and later, more cases were reported, including in flocks vaccinated against IBV (Yu and others 2001). We received samples of kidney and proventriculus from a flock of 56-days-old commercial broiler chickens, ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Garforth, C.J., Bailey, A.P. and Tranter, R.B.

Farmers’ attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers

Abstract

The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Smith SA, Jann OC, Haig D, Russell GC, Werling D, Glass EJ, Emes RD.

Adaptive evolution of Toll-like receptor 5 in domesticated mammals

Abstract

Background

Previous studies have proposed that mammalian toll like receptors (TLRs) have evolved under diversifying selection due to their role in pathogen detection. To determine if this is the case, we examined the extent of adaptive evolution in the TLR5 gene in both individual species and defined clades of the mammalia.

Results

In support of previous studies, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of mammalian TLR5. However, we also show that TLR5 genes of domestic livestock have a concentration of single nucleotide polymorphisms suggesting a specific signature of adaptation. Using codon models of evolution we have identified a concentration ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Partanen, K., Siljander-Rasi, H., Karhapää, M., Ylivainio, K.

Responses of growing pigs to different levels of dietary phosphorus - Performance, bone characteristics, and solubility of faecal phosphorus.

Abstract

A performance trial was carried out with 117 growing barrows (25–65 kg) to study the effects of different levels of dietary phosphorus (P) on the pigs' performance and bone characteristics and on the content and solubility of P in faeces. Isoenergetic diets (9.0 MJ NE kg− 1) were used containing 0.10, 0.55, 1.00, 1.45, 1.90, and 2.35% of monocalcium phosphate, and a constant calcium (Ca) to P ratio of 1.2:1. The analysed total P content ranged from 4.1 to 9.5 g kg− 1. The diets were calculated to contain 1.6, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, to 6.5 g kg− 1 ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Rutherford, K.M.D., Baxter, E.M., Ask, B., Berg, P., D’Eath, R.B., Jarvis, S., Jensen, K.K., Lawrence, A.B., Moustsen, V.A., Robson, S.K., Roehe, R., Thorup, F., Turner, S.P., Sandøe, P.

The Ethical and Welfare Implications of Large Litter Size in the Domestic Pig: Challenges and Solutions.

Abstract

Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that, in a number of ways, large litter size is a risk factor for decreased animal welfare in pig production. Increased litter size is associated with increased piglet mortality, which is likely to be associated with significant negative animal welfare impacts. In surviving piglets, many of the causes of mortality can also occur ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Seta, A., Barrow, P.A., Kaiser, P., Jones, M.A.

Early immune dynamics following infection with Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Infantis,

Early immune dynamics following infection with Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Infantis, Pullorum and Gallinarum; cytokine and chemokine gene expression profile and cellular changes of chicken caecal tonsils. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 35: 397-410 DOI information: 10.1016/j.cimid.2012.03.004.


JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Hedegaard, L., Christensen, H., Chadfield, M.S., Christensen, J.P., Bisgaard, M.

Association of Streptococcus pluranimalium with valvular endocarditis and septicaemia in adult broiler parents.

Abstract

The genus Streptococcus consists of more than 60 species, but only Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus, Streptococcus gallinaceus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus suis have been isolated from poultry. During investigations of the aetiology of increased mortality in broiler parent stock at the end of production, pure cultures of streptococcal-like organisms that could not be classified among these six species were obtained from 24 cases of septicaemia or valvular endocarditis and septicaemia. Phenotypic characterization using the API20 STREP kit identified the isolates as Aerococcus viridans (10), Aerococcus urinae (2), Leuconostoc species (4), Streptococcus salivarius (2), ...

JANUARY 01, 2016

| by Vanderhaeghe, C., Dewulf, J., Jourquin, J., de Kruif, A., Maes, D.

Incidence and prevention of early parturition in sows.

Incidence and prevention of early parturition in sows. Reprod Dom Anim 46, 428-33.